Ketika Era Handphone Dimulai 40 Tahun Lalu...

Empat puluh tahun yang lalu, tepatnya 3 April 1973, era telepon selular (ponsel) dimulai di jalanan New York City. Panggilan ponsel pertama bersejarah tersebut dilakukan oleh Martin Cooper, direktur operasi sistem untuk divisi komunikasi perusahaan Motorola, untuk rival utamanya di Bell Labs.

Martin menggambarkan panggilan telepon kepada Dr. Joel S. Engel tersebut dalam artikel The History of the Cell Phone (Sejarah Ponsel) oleh Gareth Marples.

 
 
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"Saat saya berjalan di jalan sambil berbicara di telepon, warga New York yang gaya tercengang melihat seseorang bisa bergerak sambil menelepon,"  tulis Martin.

"Pada 1973, belum ada telepon tanpa kabel atau ponsel. Saya membuat beberapa panggilan telepon, termasuk kepada reporter radio di New York sambil menyeberang jalan, yang barangkali salah satu hal paling berbahaya yang pernah saya lakukan dalam hidup saya."

Dalam rilis media pada 1973, Motorola menggembar-gemborkan "telepon radio genggam" baru bernama Dyna-Tac yang disebut dapat beroperasi dengan frekuensi radio dan berbicara pada sambungan telepon (konvensional) mana pun di dunia.

'Itu artinya bahwa di sebuah kota yang memiliki sistem Dyna-Tac, orang-orang dapat menelepon sambil mengendarai taksi, berjalan di jalanan, duduk di restoran atau di mana pun yang dapat dijangkau sinyal radio,' ujar John F. Mitchell, manajer divisi komunikasi Motorola.

Ponsel baru Motorola disebut 'batu bata' karena ukurannya yang mirip dengan batu bata yang digunakan untuk membangun rumah. Beratnya sekitar 1 kilogram dengan dimensi 22,86cm x 17,7cm x 4,44cm.  Pembicaraan yang dapat dilakukan relatif pendek karena lama baterai hanya 35 menit dan perlu 10 jam untuk diisi kembali.

Motorola kemudian menyempurnakan penemuan barunya itu sekitar 10 tahun kemudian saat perusahaan itu secara komersial memperkenalkan "batu bata" yang lebih tipis, Dyna-Tac 8000X pada 1983. Berat telepon ini kurang dari setengah kilogram dan dijual dengan harga US$3.995.

cellphone

Telepon Telah Berubah

Teknologi untuk telepon genggam telah maju pesat sejak saat itu, dengan jaringan selular yang lebih besar dan lebih canggih, dan telepon-telepon sendiri telah berevolusi menjadi smartphones yang multifungsi dan menyediakan akses Internet dan fitur-fitur lain seperti kamera, pemutar musik dan video.

Jumlah pengguna telepon genggam melonjak dari 340.213 pada 1985, menurut organisasi perdagangan CTIA, the Wireless Association, menjadi lebih dari enam miliar saat ini, menurut sebuah laporan telekom yang dikeluarkan Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa Oktober lalu.

Saat ini, semakin banyak orang yang tidak lagi menggunakan layanan telepon darat dan hanya menggunakan telepon genggam mereka sebagai satu-satunya bentuk komunikasi telepon. Di sejumlah negara berkembang yang tidak memiliki infrastruktur telepon darat, perusahaan komunikasi tidak lagi repot-repot membangun sistem darat yang rumit dan mahal, tapi langsung berinvestasi dan membangun sistem telepon selular atau telepon genggam yang masif.





 
 
 
 
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