APLIKASI MULTIMEDIA

APLIKASI MULTIMEDIA

PENGANTAR MULTIMEDIA

 

DEFINISI MULTIMEDIA

MULTI [latin nouns] : banyak; bermacam-macam

MULTIMEDIA

MEDIUM [latin]        : sesuatu yang dipakai untuk menyampaikan atau membawa sesuatu

 

Multimedia dapat diartikan sebagai penggunaan beberapa media yang berbeda untuk menggabungkan dan menyampaikan informasi dalam bentuk text, audio, grafik, animasi, dan video

Beberapa definisi menurut beberapa ahli:

  1. Kombinasi dari komputer dan video (Rosch, 1996)
  2. Kombinasi dari tiga elemen: suara, gambar, dan teks (McComick,1996)
  3. Kombinasi dari paling sedikit dua media input atau output.  Media ini dapat berupa audio (suara, musik), animasi, video, teks, grafik dan gambar (Turban dan kawan-kawan, 2002)
  4. Alat yang dapat menciptakan presentasi yang dinamis dan interaktif yang mengkombinasikan teks, grafik, animasi, audio dan video (Robin dan Linda, 2001)
  5. Multimedia dalam konteks komputer menurut Hofstetter 2001 adalah: pemanfaatan komputer untuk membuat dan menggabungkan teks, grafik, audio, video, dengan menggunakan tool yang memungkinkan pemakai berinteraksi, berkreasi, dan berkomunikasi.

 

DEFINISI KOMPUTER MULTIMEDIA

Menurut wikipedia.org:

Komputer Multimedia adalah sebuah komputer yang dikonfigurasi sesuai dengan rekomendasi dan memiliki sebuah CD-ROM. Standarisasi computer mutlimedia dilakukan oleh "Multimedia PC Marketing Council", sebuah kelompok kerja dari sebuah perusahaan yang dahulu bernama Software Publishers Association (sekarang bernama Software and Information Industry Association). Perusahaan ini merupakan gabungan dari Microsoft, Creative Labs, Dell, Gateway, dan Fujitsu.

 

Kenapa CD-ROM?

Karena dahulu multimedia sebatas hanya kemampuan komputer untuk menampilkan video melalui sebuah CD-ROM saja.

Standar Komputer Multimedia menurut Software and Information Industry Association:

   Pada tahun 1990:

•       16 MHz 386SX CPU 

•       2MB RAM 

•       30MB hard disk 

•       256-color, 640 x 480 VGA video card 

•       1x CD-ROM drive using no more than 40% of CPU to read, with < 1second seek time 

•       Sound card outputting 22 kHz, 8-bit sound; and inputting 11 kHz, 8-bit sound 

•       Windows 3.0 with Multimedia Extensions.

   Pada tahun 1993:

  • 25 MHz 486SX CPU 
  • 4 MB RAM 
  • 160 MB hard disk 
  • 16-bit color, 640×480 VGA video card 
  • 2X CD-ROM drive using no more than 40% of CPU to read at 1x, with < 400ms seek time 
  • Sound card outputting 44 kHz, 16-bit sound 
  • Windows 3.0 with Multimedia Extensions, or Windows 3.1

   Pada tahun 1996:

•       75 MHz Pentium CPU 

•       8 MB RAM 

•       540 MB hard disk 

•       Video system that can show 352×240 at 30 frames per second, 15-bit color 

•       MPEG-1 hardware or software video playback 

•       4x CD-ROM drive using no more than 40% of CPU to read, with <250ms seek time 

•       Sound card outputting 44 kHz, 16-bit sound 

•       Windows 3.11

 

MENGAPA MULTIMEDIA?

 

Multimedia dapat digunakan dalam:

  1. Bidang periklanan yang efektif dan interaktif
  2. Bidang pendidikan dalam penyampaian bahan pengajaran secara interaktif dan dapat mempermudah pembelajaran karena dididukung oleh berbagai aspek: suara, video, animasi, teks, dan grafik
  3. Bidang jaringan dan internet yang membantu dalam pembuatan website yang menarik, informatif, dan interaktif

 

Menurut riset Computer Technology Research (CTR):

  1. Orang mampu mengingat 20% dari yang dilihat
  2. Orang mampu mengingat 30% dari yang didengar
  3. Orang mampu mengingat 50% dari yang didengar dan dilihat
  4. Orang mampu mengingat 30% dari yang didengar, dilihat, dan dilakukan.

Multimedia mampu:

  1. Mengubah mengubah tempat kerja.  Dengan adanya teleworking, para pekerja dapat melakukan pekerjaanya tidak harus dari kantor. 

          Contoh software yang     mendukung teleworking/telecommuting: Netmeeting!

      2.Mengubah cara belanja.  Homeshopping/teleshopping dapat  dilakukan dengan menggunakan internet, kemudian barang dating dengan              sendirinya.

      3.Mengubah cara bisnis.  Nokia membuat bisnis telepon seluler, banyak perusahaan menggunakan sistem jual beli online, bank                          menggunakan cara online-banking.

      4. Mengubah cara memperoleh informasi.  Orang-orang mulai  menggunakan internet dan berbagai software untuk mencari informasi.                Misalnya: membaca koran online, detik.com, menggunakan software kesehatan, belajar gitar dari software dan masih banyak lagi.

      5. Mengubah cara belajar. Sekolah mulai menggunakan computer multimedia, belajar online, menggunakan e-book.

      6. Internet Multimedia juga mulai bersaing dengan televisi dan radio.

 1.     Perception Medium

  • Perception media membantu manusia untuk merasakan Lingkungannya

         Aspek pada perception medium :

 i.    Aspek Representative Space: sesuatu yang terkandung dalam presentasi secara nyata

      -     Kertas, layar 

      -     Slide show, power point

 ii.   Aspek Representative Values: nilai-nilai yang terkandung dalam presentasi

      -     Self contained (interpretasi tiap orang berbeda), misal: suhu, rasa, bau

      -     Predefined symbol set (sudah disepakati sebelumnya), misal: teks, ucapan, gerak tubuh

iii.  Aspek Representation Dimension

      -     Ruang (space)

      -     Waktu (time) :

                                                         time independent, discreet (text, grafis)

                                                         time dependent , continuous media (video, audio, sinyak dari sensor yang berbeda)

 2.     Representation Medium

  • Representation media ditentukan oleh representasi informasi oleh komputer

      •     “Bagaimana informasi pada komputer dikodekan?” Menggunakan berbagai format untuk merepresentasikan informasi.

             Contoh :

-     Text : ASCII dan EBCDIC

-     Grafis : CEPT atau CAPTAIN videotext

-     Audio stream : PCM (Pulse Coding Method) dengan kuantisasi linier 16 bit

-     Image : Facsimile (standard ISO) atau JPEG

-     Audio/video : TV standard (PAL, SECAM, NTSC), computer standard (MPEG)

 3.    Presentation Medium

  • Tool dan device yang digunakan untuk proses input dan output informasi
  • “  Melalui edia apa informasi disajikan oleh komputer, atau dimasukkan ke komputer?”

      Output   : kertas, layar, speaker

      Input       : keyboard, mouse, kamera, microphone

 4.   Storage Medium

      •     Pembawa data yang mempunyai kemampuan untuk menyimpan informasi (tidak terbatas pada komponen komputer)

      •     “Dimanakah informasi akan disimpan?” 􀃆 microfilm, floppy disk, hard disk, CD ROM, DVD, MMC, SDCard

 5.   Transmission Medium

  • Pembawa informasi yang memungkinkan terjadinya transmisi data secara kontinyu (tidak termasuk media penyimpanan)
  • “Melalui apa informasi akan ditransmisikan?” 􀃆 melalui jaringan, menggunakan kabel (coaxial, fiber optics), melalui udara terbuka (wireless)

 6.   Information Exchange Medium

      •     Pembawa informasi untuk transmisi, contoh : media penyimpanan dan media transmisi

      •     “Bagaimana informasi dari tempat yang berbeda saling dipertukarkan?” 􀃆 direct transmission dengan jaringan komputer, combined                   (storage dan transmission media), web yang berisi informasi, e-book, forum

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