Apa Itu Rooting Android?

Pengertian Rooting

Root Android atau Rooting Android adalah proses yang memungkinkan pengguna ponsel dan perangkat lain yang menjalankan sistem operasi-OS Android untuk mencapai kontrol istimewa-akses penuh – sebagai admin atau administrator (dikenal sebagai root access) dalam subsistem Linux Android dengan tujuan mengatasi keterbatasan bahwa operator dan produsen menempatkan pada beberapa perangkat. Hal ini hampir mirip dengan istilah  jailbreak pada perangkat yang dijalankan oleh Sistem Operasi IOS Apple ( contoh : iphone jailbreak )


Pemahaman Rooting

Banyak perangkat yang menjalankan sistem operasi Android harus di-Rooting dahulu untuk dapat menginstal aplikasi pilihan dari sistem Android, seperti CyanogenMod. Hal ini karena dalam konfigurasi perangkat yang sudah ada, belum di-root (unrooted), aplikasi yang diinstal pengguna tidak memiliki akses langsung ke chip flash memori dengan demikian tidak dapat mengubah atau memodifikasi sistem operasi itu sendiri. Rooting juga diperlukan untuk aplikasi tertentu dan widget yang membutuhkan sistem tambahan dan hak-hak perangkat keras seperti untuk reboot telepon, utilitas backup tertentu, dan akses lainnya ke perangkat keras lain seperti LED status. Rooting juga diperlukan untuk menonaktifkan atau menghapus aplikasi yang diinstall produsen seperti City ID (semacam pengenalan kode area). Rooting telepon (dalam hal ini handphone-ponsel) biasanya juga mencakup menginstall sebuah aplikasi-app bernama Superuser yang mengawasi aplikasi yang diberikan hak akses ke  root.

Aplikasi App Superuser
Berbeda dengan jailbreaking IOS, Rooting tidak diperlukan untuk menjalankan aplikasi yang tidak didistribusikan oleh Android Market resmi (kadang-kadang disebut sebagai “side-loading“). Namun beberapa operator, seperti AT & T, mencegah instalasi aplikasi tidak di Android Market di firmware . Salah satu kerugian Rooting adalah bahwa beberapa pembuat telepon mempertimbangkan jika “memodifikasi” telepon berarti melanggar garansi atau garansi hilang. Namun, selama telepon unrooted-tidak di rooting (proses untuk melakukannya bervariasi untuk tiap handphone) sebelum pengguna mencoba untuk menggunakan garansi nya, tidak ada cara mudah bagi penyedia jaminan untuk mengetahui bahwa ponsel sebelumnya telah di root.

Proses Rooting

Proses Rooting umumnya bervariasi pada perangkat. Ini termasuk mengeksploitasi kelemahan keamanan di firmware setelah dikirim dari pabrik. Misalnya, tak lama setelah T-Mobile G1 dirilis, segera diketemukan bahwa saat mengetik apapun menggunakan keyboard, ditafsirkan sebagai sebuah perintah khusus di shell (root)! Meskipun Google dengan cepat merilis sebuah patch untuk memperbaiki hal ini, penanda firmware lama itu bocor dan memberikan orang kemampuan untuk downgrade dan mengeksploitasi aslinya untuk mendapatkan hak akses ke root. Setelah eksploitasi ini ditemukan, Custom Recovery Image (file pemulihan yang dibuat khusus oleh developer) yang tidak memeriksa  digital signature dari paket update firmware dapat dilewati. Pada gilirannya, menggunakan custom recovery, firmware baru yang sudah dimodifikasi dapat diinstall, yang biasanya meliputi utilitas (misalnya app Superuser) yang diperlukan untuk menjalankan app-aplikasi sebagai root.

 Contoh Custom Recovery

Dua perangkat Google Android, Nexus One dan Nexus S, memiliki boot loader yang dapat dibuka dengan hanya menjalankan perintah “fastboot oem unlock”  dari komputer yang terhubung ke perangkat saat berada dalam modus boot loader. Setelah menerima peringatan boot loader akan dibuka sehingga sistem image baru dapat ditulis langsung ke flash  (Custom ROM /Mod) tanpa perlu mengeksploitasi.

Rom Manager
Baru-baru ini, Motorola, LG Electronics dan HTC Corporation telah menambahkan fitur keamanan untuk perangkat mereka pada tingkat perangkat keras dalam upaya untuk mencegah perangkat ritel android dari Rooting. Sebagai contoh, Motorola Droid X memiliki keamanan boot-loader yang akan menempatkan telepon dalam “recovery mode” jika firmware unsigned (tanpa pengenal) dimuat ke perangkat. Perlindungan ini dikalahkan 6 hari setelah Motorola Droid X diluncurkan untuk umum.

Legalitas Rooting

Pada tanggal 26 Juli 2010, kantor Hak Cipta Amerka Serikat  ( U.S. Copyright office ) mengumumkan pembebasan baru membuat secara resmi hukum  untuk Root dan menjalankan perangkat yang tidak sah aplikasi pihak ketiga, serta kemampuan dalam membuka ponsel untuk digunakan pada beberapa operator (SIM lock).

Sumber : Wiki | Rooting Andorid OS , Youtube , Googling.

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